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Agreement, Disagreement and against the Law in the Perspectives of Civil Law in Indonesia

Abstract

The truth value of an agreement is to perform an exchange of right and obligation in a fair way, so that the unbalanced responsibility can be accepted as something fair especially when the process of the exchange is done proportionally. One of law consequences of an exchange is that all agreements that are regally made will function as a state regulation which is binding to all involved in the making of this regulation. Thus, those who do not implement that agreement, it can be regarded as those who do not strive for disagreement. The central point of the act of disagreement lies in the failure of fulfilling the obligation by a party to follow up their promise stated in the agreement. Consequently, there will be no action of disagreement when there is no agreement made earlier. Hence, disagreement action cannot be regarded as a act against the law, as act against the law act must be indicated by a wrongdoing done by someone that causes harm to someone else. But both parties had no law connection. Nevertheless, law sanction involved is not too far different from that given to disagreement; that is to replace any harm caused to the victimized party.

Keywords: Agreement, disagreement, against the law, civil law, Indonesia.

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Multi Culture And Its Implications Toward Various Social Conflicts In Indonesia

Abstract


Theoretically, multi culture is a potential culture that can reflect a national identity. While historically, multi culture is a component that is essential in the establishment of the Republic of Indonesia. In addition, multi culture can also be a cultural capital and a cultural power that drive the dynamics of the nation’s life. However, on the other hand, multi culture also has the potential to give rise to a conflict that could threaten national integration because the conflict between cultures can lead to clashes among ethnic groups, religion, and races which are very sensitive and vulnerable. This condition can surely harm the nation’s integration. It may occur if the conflict is not controlled and resolved wisely. In the last two decades, various social conflicts caused by multi-culture is increasing, in terms of both quality and quantity. Various social conflicts such as in Aceh, Timika (Papua), Ambon (Maluku), Pontianak (West Kalimantan), Sampit-Mataram (NTB), Poso (Central Sulawesi) and Mesuji (Lampung) are examples of cases of social conflicts caused by ethnic and religious clashes, and/or between races that occurred in various regions in Indonesia. Thus, social conflict is an inevitable thing in our social life. Therefore, one thing that needs to be done is how the conflicts can be controlled and resolved peacefully and wisely, so they do not cause social disintegration in the life of society, nation and state.

Keywords: Multi culture, implication, social conflict, Indonesia.

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Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup : wewenang pengelolaan lingkungan secara terpadu

Pengelolaan lingkungan hidup berdasarkan UULH-UUPLH dan mengungkapkan pemikiran mengenai wewenang pengelolaan lingkungan secara terpadu guna mendukung keberhasilan pembangunan berkelanjutan pada tingkat Nasional dalam Negara Indonesia.

Sumber dari penulisan ini pada umumnya bersumber dari buku, makalah, dan peraturan perundang- undangan yang berkaitan dengan pengelolaan lingkungan hidup di Indonesia. Hasil dari pembahasan mengenai pengelolaan lingkungan di Tingkat Nasional dalam negara Indonesia berada di tangan Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup, yang tidak memimpin Departemen, yang tugasnya menetapkan kebijaksanaan pengelolaan lingkungan, dengan mengadakan koordinasi dan kerja sama dengan Departemen Sektoral dan lembaga pemerintah Non Departemen. Namun apabila dilihat menurut UU No. 23 Tahun 1997 Menteri  Negara Lingkungan Hidup, memiliki wewenang untuk membuat keputusan tata usaha negara seperti: izin pembuang limbah ke media lingkungan hidup, tetapi masih menunggu ditetapkan dalam peraturan perundang-undangan.

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